We are very complex creatures and the way our genes interact and function is very complex. Understanding our genetics and epigenetics is not easy. We have discussed that epigenetics works by using a chemical group called methyl. It is found in foods and is used to turn ON or OFF a gene or group of genes. Scientists have found three ways that epigenetics uses methyl to work:

1) RNA – RNA is a copy of one half side of a gene that exits the nucleus and in the outer cell is used to build a protein module. There are two types of RNA and depending on which one is selected at cell division determines if that gene is ON/OFF in the cell copy,

2) NUCLEOSOME – The Nucleosome is a structure used to package or bind our genes tightly so they fit inside the nucleus. Genes need to be unbound or unwound first before they can be replicated or used as RNA to build proteins. Histones do this job and in effect determine whether a gene or group of genes are ON/OFF at this time, and

3) DNA METHYLATION – Methyl groups can bind to the base of our DNA turning the associated gene OFF. Lack of the methylation turns it back ON. DNA methylation is easily copied during cell replication so not only does the DNA information get copied but epigenetic information does as well.

These 3 ways of manipulating epigenetics can work in unison and forms a very complex programming structure inside each cell of our bodies.

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